Professional Discretion: the Shifting Sands of Social Media

From GamerGate Wiki
Jump to: navigation, search


[1]. The complaint regards an interview on GamerGate in the CBC broadcast La sphère. Translated to English by Magical Vidya Kitty with the assistance of Google Translate.

Disclosure: This article was translated by someone who perceives the corruption issues in the media put forward via GamerGate and denies much of the media attribution of harassment to GamerGate.

The Initial Complaint

La sphère is a weekly program broadcasting on Saturday on ICI Radio-Canada Première. La sphère first offers a weekly roundup of news as seen through social and digital media, then examines the repercussions of these technologies on politics, culture, the economy, and the family. On March 7, 2015, The Sphere broadcast an interview with Mr. Carl Thierren on the topic of GamerGate.

Mr. Laurence Tilmant-Rousseau [2]. Mr. Tilmant-Rousseau objected to perceived inaccuracies in reporting.

Additionally, Mr. Tilmant-Rousseau objected to disrespectful discussion of the topic by the host of La sphère, Mr. Matthieu Dugal on the program's Facebook page when the topic was announced. The complainant alleged that the host accused GamerGate supporters of being misogynists and conspiracy theorists.

The complaint opens as follows:

Saturday, March 7, 2015, from 13 am to 14 pm, during the broadcast of the program La sphère on ICI Radio-Canada Première, hosted by Mr. Dugal, columnist Carl Therrien talks about the saga of GamerGate, a series of events and scandals concerning journalistic ethics in videogame media. Having used the hashtag repeatedly on the twitter account @Mug33k since October 2014 and followed the saga from the beginning, I was dismayed by the lack of rigor and accuracy by the columnist, presented as a video game specialist and assistant professor at the University of Montreal.

Following the complaint of Mr. Tilmant-Rousseau, the full text is available in pdf format at the end of this review, but I'll just summarize in broad strokes; a difficult task, I must admit, since it is 33 pages and contains one hundred references to as many web links.

But first, for the neophyte can hear something in this review, I will make a few explanations.

First, the term refers broadly gamer people who indulge in the pleasures of gaming, online or not, whether casual or outright fanatics or addicted. The community of gamers is huge, the popularity of video games is constantly growing as the industry that produces them. This community is divided itself in a constellation of sub-groups that gather gamers by the type of games they are involved, but also around issues of concern.

As for the so-called gamergate is an informal online movement to disparate claims, which requires among other more transparency and ethics on the part of journalists and specialized media covering the world of video games, these being (I'm simplifying) accused of being under the thumb of producers, placing themselves in a conflict of interest, if not downright corrupt.

But gamergate is essentially a hashtag; this English term, which is now part of Larousse, means "spider" (or Octothorpe, rail or sharp, or the "#" symbol) when affixed to the end of the Internet as a marker for metadata do a keyword. One could say that the hashtag serves as a rallying point, or virtual agora, in that it identifies the subject of a discussion on the Internet about concerns or special interests, including where on Twitter Use the hashtag began.

The gamergate is not a structured organization with a hierarchical management and the defined goals, charter or manifesto, for example, so it is not possible to determine precisely what defends the movement. It is not possible to know exactly how the movement was born - some believe that this is a communication campaign fabricated to counter the image of misogyny gamers. (Ref. : )

The gamergate movement therefore has its detractors, and they are many. We especially find them among those who consider that its participants wrap themselves in ethics and virtue to hide their misogyny and sexism, a characteristic of the video game world and its followers it is difficult to deny ( see among others about the article entitled Sexism among geeks why our community is sick, and how to fix it , the blogger and Mar_Lard video game producer on the feminist blog AC Husson.

Which reinforces this view is that this movement seems to originate in sneak attacks, vicious and sexist one producer of games, Ms. Zoe Quinn, was the object when it launched Depression Quest, a game which, as its name suggests, seeks to educate users to the harsh reality of depression.

The attacks have become virulent later when her ex-boyfriend, Eron Gjoni, revealed on the Internet at length the details of his tumultuous love life with her, even giving the names of five men she had slept during their relationship. This text is always available online, is known as the Zoe Post.

One of the men appointed by the Gjoni Zoe Post, Nathan Grayson, is a journalist specializing in the gaming industry who writes for the weblog Kotaku. It was enough for Quinn is accused of distributing its sex for good press; Grayson and conflict of interest, regardless of whether the article in which he barely mentions Quest Depression was written before the start of his supposed relationship with Quinn.

And it is from that moment we can say that the gamergate movement has taken off, the debate bearing on cronyism rather between journalists covering industry and game producers.

That's the parenthesis.

As for the complaint, it essentially revolves around the fact that the guest commentator on the show The sphere, Carl Therrien, appears to reduce the gamergate a misogynist and sexist movement that turned to ethical concerns for issues image.

The media, writes the complainant, have always been aware of the sensitivity gamers face ethics and this is nothing new.

And, actually, the subject has done a lot of mileage for several years.

Mr. Tilmant Rousseau also believes that the columnist made certain errors of fact on the content of the revelations of the former boyfriend Quinn:

It is totally false and inaccurate, he wrote, saying that Zoe Quinn had no positive visibility from Nathan Grayson or Kotaku. Moreover, it was clearly established in the timeline than ever accuses Eron Gjoni Zoe Quinn have traded sexual favors against criticism of positive play.


One can discuss at length whether Nathan Grayson and Zoe were friends before the start of their intimate relationship, but it is clear that items exist and one of them was published a few days before the start of the relationship.

Even Eron Gjoni admits that if there was a conflict of interest between Zoe and Nathan on hedge Quest Depression before April, there is no evidence that it was sexual in nature.

The complainant also alleged that Mr. Therrien have described as "vindictive pornography" (revenge porn) revelations Eron Gjoni, the ex-boyfriend of Zoe Quinn has made ​​on the Internet. He adds that pictures of naked Zoe Quinn, that it accuses of having Gjoni published on the Internet, were not private photos.

He writes about it:

It was demonstrated that the published photos (...) were those where Zoe Quinn posed as a nude model for erotic websites rather risqué photos taken in private (...) which is no spiteful of pornography. (This) is a free charge, unfounded (...)

In addition, Mr. Tilmant Rousseau also wants Mr. Therrien having referred to an article in Newsweek, entitled Is gamergate About Media Ethics gold Harassing Women? (The gamergate: media ethics and harassment against women?), To "prove that gamergate is a misogynist movement and intimidating women." It states that the quantitative method used by the authors of the study, which reported the article was described as questionable by some observers.

And he adds:

Although Newsweek is not part of the CBC, use this article by repeating extrapolations Newsweek reporter on CBC waves break rule accuracy.

Another criticism: the commentator failed to mention several important facts necessary for the proper assessment of gamergate.

He writes:

(...) Many conflicts of interest and appearances of conflicts were discovered by supporters of gamergate. The gamergate goes beyond the relationship between Nathan Grayson and Zoe Quinn. No mention in the chronicle. Gamergate We try to present as a horde of stalkers men against women, whereas breast gamergate, there is another hashtag named #notyourshield composed of women and visible minorities. #NotYourShield Wants to demonstrate that gamergate n is not only a movement "male chauvinist and hetero-normative" (to quote Carl Therrien). No mention in the chronicle.

Finally, in a second part to his complaint sent a few days later, Mr. Tilmant Rousseau complains some comments Facilitator Matthew Dugal and columnist Carl Therrien about it on Facebook.

The complainant notes that Mr. Therrien has, among others, called a "troll senile" on his Facebook page when he learned he had complained about him to the Ombudsman's Office; and that Mr. Dugal's called a "Holocaust denier" in an exchange where the host to several accused him of denying the problem of sexism in the gaming universe.

Thereupon, he writes:

That an employee of CBC (do) this kind of comment, that, I'm not. To suggest that my comments on sexism are similar to the anti-Semitic movement that denies the Holocaust, to me, it's an outright violation of journalistic standards and practices (...)


At a minimum, I consider it a felony to reserve duty by an employee of the CBC. Especially as the case of Mr. Dugal, I in no time provoked or insulted it.

The complainant did not like the text posted on Facebook by the moderator to announce chronicle Carl Therrien. It considers that this promotional text implied that all "supporters gamergate are misogynistic and adhering to conspiracy theories.

Response from Management

Mr. Luc Simard, Director of Diversity and civic Relations, replied to the complainant on behalf of the management of Radio-Canada Première HERE.

Here's the gist of this response:

You blame a guest to The sphere, Carl Therrien, of lacking rigor and having made ​​inaccurate when he commented on the controversy known as the gamergate. You also criticize the leader Matthieu Dugal for posting on Facebook, the eve of the show, a message that you feel provocative for online players. In a second complaint, later, you show that Mr. Dugal offended you had dealt with Holocaust denier in a message on Facebook. Note that the radio program was presented on March 7. Recall also that in the beginning of gamergate, there is a video game called Quest Depression.

Let us return to the remarks delivered to the antenna and which you consider inaccurate. The host and his guest claim that a journalist embroiled in controversy, Mr. Nathan Grayson, did not criticize or written article on Depression Quest. You support the opposite. Our research found online, from the pen of Mr. Grayson, a mere reference to Depression Quest in a review of dozens of games. These words are not a criticism: there is no judgment or article. According to Le Robert, an item is a "writing forming by itself a separate whole, but part of a publication". We believe that Messrs. Dugal Therrien and correctly reported the facts.

Second, you argue that the guest is wrong when he argues that the emotional life of the creator of the game, Ms. Zoe Quinn, has nothing to do with the controversy. Mr. Therrien perceives a form of misogyny. You see rather an illustration of bad journalistic practices in the gaming industry.

The guest bases his opinion on a study, published in Newsweek, which reveals the imbalance of "tweets" published in the gamergate: a ratio of 1 against 14, they are directed against the designer of the game (Ms. Quinn) rather than against the journalist suspected of ethical laxity (Mr. Grayson). You find that the calculation method reported in Newsweek is invalid and you cite sources in support of your claim. But these sources do not appear to us to contradict the bottom of the article and we believe that Mr. Therrien could trust Newsweek. Accordingly, we believe it was right to talk about misogyny.

In the third part of your complaint, you deplore that the guest and host extend this misogynist dimension gamergate. You would have preferred to devote the interview to journalistic ethics, which are for you most of gamergate. You have also presented a detailed chronology of these faults in your original complaint.

We note that the first part of the interview precisely addresses this issue. Mr. Therrien was in 2007 to illustrate the disproportionate influence of the gambling industry news coverage and Mr. Dugal going to use the word "cronyism" to translate the relationship between industry and journalists.

In the second part of the interview, Mr. Therrien explains how misogyny has come to wrap themselves in the mantle of journalistic ethics. This seems to have piqued you. The remarks by the guest and host are however not free: M. Dugal recalls, among others, the death threats made ​​against some actresses gamergate.

In a radio interview, the host must always select an angle. Mr. Dugal the precise from the start: it will be the controversial dimension of gamergate and it will keep it until the end cap. It will therefore address both interpretations of the subject, journalistic ethics and misogyny. It will be done quickly, because time is short: the interview of 7 March lasted 12 minutes 49 seconds.

It is perhaps this brevity that struck you because we did release a very small part of what you knew. As a connoisseur of the subject, as you already had a clear opinion and you would have preferred to see reflected. But The sphere is a program that targets the general public and we believe, almost entirely, it heard about the subject for the first time. We had to paint a picture in broad strokes, without distorting the subject. We believe we have succeeded.

Let us, before closing this section on the antenna, to recall the context of distribution: it was the eve of March 8, International Women's Day. From the outset, Matthieu Dugal was located gamergate in the context of feminism and new technologies. The show also dealt with gender discrimination and women's place on Wikipedia. Since misogyny is a facet of gamergate, it would have been unthinkable to ignore the eve of March 8.

Now treat the message published by the animator Matthew Dugal on Facebook the day of the show. You believe that supporters of gamergate are presented as misogynistic and proponents of the conspiracy theory. We accept that this message is fiery, but we must understand the purpose: it is to awaken the listener's curiosity to get him to listen to the show the next day. This text consists of short sentences and shock-formulas is of the order of the teaser (advertising) rather than reporting.

However, we share your unease about the other message written on Facebook by Mr. Dugal. He writes you play on the "Holocaust denier". The word choice was unfortunate, as the facilitator of course not believe that you deny the existence of the Nazi gas chambers. Should have read "intransigent" and Mr. Dugal apologizes for her word choice.


Mr. Tilmant-Rousseau was not convinced by the explanations of Mr. Simard. In a long reply that I also attach in pdf format for viewing at the end of this review, [3].

He also complained that it took too long direction before answering, exceeding several days 20 working days that the Office of the Ombudsman gives it to meet the complainants. I can say straight away that I will not hold that complaint, Mr. Tilmant-Rousseau who sent me until April 24 modifications and additions to his complaint that management had to consider in drafting his response.

First I have to admit that this complaint led me into a world I do not know, or very little: that of video game players, its industry, its press, its unique culture, lively discussions - an understatement! - And often outrageous that characterize its discussion groups.

The complaint of Mr. Tilmant Rousseau forced me to read many texts to form an opinion, just my opinion, of what gamergate. And, of course, not just those he has given me in reference. I add that I have also learned of two revisions has made ​​my colleague Esther Enkin CBC on the same subject, and that they have confirmed me in my analysis.

In light of the many readings, I must conclude that the first gamergate is both one thing and its opposite: yes, a community movement of video game-loving consumers ethics who question the links and cronyism , corruption and collusion between journalists and the media who follow the sector and industry; but, no offense to the complainant because it is readily ascertainable, a window on a very dark aspect of the gaming community, is misogyny, sexism, bullying and harassment.

In the context of the debates often irrational, through the points of view of the facts found in the press who treated the gamergate, the Zoe Post and everything that hangs, it is difficult not to see in what Mr. Tilmant Rousseau calls inaccuracies in what Mr. Carl Therrien, other than opinions based on legitimate interpretations, even if they are questionable.

Moreover, these interpretations are often found in the other pen gamergate journalists or observers of the phenomenon. This is the case, for example, to the Newsweek article cited by Mr. Therrien and which the complainant gives no credibility.

Regarding the terms "spiteful pornography" used by the commentator to describe the text and photos that ex-boyfriend of Zoe Quinn published on the Internet, I note that Mr. Therrien used in a sentence at conditional. Here is exactly what it says:

We are very far from the truth in this story, maybe a woman has repeatedly manipulated and deceived a man, perhaps a man is very manipulative and made a note (...) that s apparent to the rancorous pornography. We do not know, we are very far from the truth (...)

That someone may have written a ticket that "akin to pornography spiteful", that is not the same thing as to say that it is actually delivered to the rancorous pornography. The fact of publishing the details of the sex life of an ex-girlfriend on the Internet, and pictures of her naked, whether they were not taken in private, is not something particularly glorious. Personally, I would be quite prepared to say that the thing 'akin to the rancorous pornography "and borders on harassment.

That said, as long, supported and documented what the complaint of Mr. Tilmant-Rousseau, I will not elaborate further on the aspect of it that discusses about airing Carl Therrien expert commentator. Why? Because the Journalistic Standards and Practices (JSP) CBC allow people who are not employees of the Company, and are invited to participate in its information content, to freely express their opinions.

In fact, it is even precisely why we invited: to express opinions.

For the NPJ require CBC, in its information content in news, current events or public affairs, presents to its audience a diversity of views, a variety of viewpoints.

Here are two excerpts from NPJ where this requirement is defined and explained:

Mission and Values: Balance

We contribute to debates on issues affecting the Canadian public by presenting a diversity of opinions. Our information contained in all our media, offer a wide range of topics and viewpoints.

When we discuss controversial topics, we ensure that conflicting views are reflected with respect. We consider their relevance in the debate and the magnitude of the current they represent.

We also make sure to present those views within a reasonable time.

Opinion: Expression of opinions

Our programs and our multiple platforms promote the expression of prospects or particular points of view. This type of content enriches public debate on the issues of the day and improves understanding.

When we broadcast programs, program segments or of digital content which present an opinion or a single point of view, we strive to offer a variety of perspectives on the subject across the network or relevant platform and this, in a timely manner.

When we choose to present a particular point of view:

  • It must be clearly identified.
  • It should not distort other viewpoints.
Under the principle of impartiality which is part of our values, the members of Information staff can express their personal opinions on controversial topics, and this on all of our platforms.

And this is the standard that specifically targets guests and commentators are not part of CBC staff:

Opinion: Guests and commentators

CBC provides in its broadcasts a variety of comments and views on important topics.

Balance is achieved over time, through the presentation of perspectives and multiple perspectives that reflect a diversity of opinions.

So that the public can fully understand the perspective of a guest or a commentator, it is important to mention its links of association or affiliation, or, its particular interests.

On this last point, Mr. Tilmant Rousseau argues that the issue The sphere should have presented Mr. Carl Therrien as "opposing the movement gamergate". In his opinion the analysis reflected Mr. Therrien bias on the subject, and this bias, from his point of view, is a "special interest" under the last mentioned rule.

I do not agree. Again, guests and outside commentators are used because of their expertise to provide their personal point of view, their opinions on current topics. Mr. Therrien's expertise comes from his studies, his research and teaching it provides at the University of Montreal, including the history and historiography of gaming. As far as I know, Mr. Therrien does not militate against gamers or gamergate and has no activities that are likely to place him in a conflict of interest or otherwise confer about him as a partisan the public would need to know to properly appreciate his opinions.

The cited excerpts from NPJ demand, to balance the views and opinions heard on a topic, to give voice to the "differing views" in the light "of their relevance in the debate and scope current they represent. " We also need these other views are available within a reasonable time, and I added on one or other of ICI CBC platforms.

Given the nature of the subject, I do not doubt for a second that the gamergate and the questions it raises will be in the news for some time. I do not doubt that the CBC will return to the issue over time and that other opinions than Mr. Therrien, divergent, concordant or complementary will be available to listeners and ICI CBC readers.

To conclude this aspect of the complaint, I will quote an excerpt from one of the two revisions that my colleague from CBC ombudsman, Ms. Esther Enkin has produced it a few months ago at the request of a listener who mainly complained of the same thing as Mr. Tilmant-Rousseau.

Here that wrote Ms. Enkin (note: my translation):

For months, members of the gaming community are waging a war of words, accusing or journalists covering the sector to produce biased and complacent reports, either denouncing widespread harassment against women working in the industry gaming.

On the web, this debate took the form of a true saga now known as the gamergate (...).

You are frustrated that the hashtag in #GamerGate came to be associated with misogyny and intimidation. The fact is that it is. To say or talk about is not incorrect and is not either of collusion with the gaming industry. It would also be unreasonable for broadcast a report on the gamergate in defining there only and only as a consumer movement, or protest against corruption within this industry.

The other aspect of the complaint of Mr. Tilmant-Rousseau is the use of Facebook by Mr. Carl Therrien and host of The sphere, Mr. Matthieu Dugal. Specifically, the complainant claimed them for their lack of respect and the words they used to describe it in his discussions with them on their respective Facebook page.

Mr. Therrien, for example, described the complainant, without naming him, as "senile troll" on his Facebook page on hearing that a listener had complained to the Ombudsman CBC interview that had given to the sphere. It is true that the complainant had not previously chosen to treat the commentator of "clown" and "charlatan" in exchanges on Twitter.

Still, Mr. Therrien is not an employee of Radio-Canada, he is free of his opinions and disseminate them where he wants, like the issue of responsible Sphere are free not the invite commentator if they feel that what he has publicly kept out of line. In short, in this regard can not be criticized Mr. Therrien of violating NPJ CBC.

Mr. Dugal had, meanwhile, an exchange that I would call "muscular" with the complainant on his Facebook page.

Here is what Mr. Dugal complained of by Mr Tilmant-Rousseau:

Can you tell me what it takes you to your masculinity to admit that there are systemic problems of sexism in quite all areas of society, particularly in the world of techno? What it takes you, man? If you like that you say it is not, well, continue to live in your parallel world, but stops stp come here to play the denial.Ciborium, arrives at the XXI e .

The tone of the exchange, the apostrophe served to the complainant, the use of an expletive and especially the characterization of Mr. Tilmant-Rousseau "negationist", meaning a heavy term referring to those who deny the existence of the Holocaust, are problematic.

First, because they contravene the equity value of NPJ, which requires dealing with people "with openness and respect."

Then also because they infringe the following standard:

Opinion: Journalists News and CBC News

We are guided by the principle of impartiality.

We offer our public perspectives, facts and analysis it needs to understand an issue or a matter of public interest.

Journalists from Radio-Canada do not express their personal opinions . This is to protect the impartiality of the public broadcaster and allow journalists to explore a topic in an open and unbiased.

We respect these standards, no matter where we play, whether on CBC platforms or other external media to the CBC.

Finally, they also violate the standards in the use of social media. These things saith the first of these NPJ:

Use of Social Media: Principles

Social media such as Twitter, Facebook and Flickr can be a powerful and important tool for journalistic work, both for gathering information and for their dissemination.

Whatever the platform used for the dissemination of information, we stick to our standards. We do not distribute on social networking information that we do not diffuserions on air or on our website.

When we use social media as a tool to gather information, we apply the same standards as other sources of information.

We adhere to the same principles and values ​​in our personal use of social media.

Finally, as if all that was not already clear, another rule comes to the dot on the "i"; NPJ note that this also refers to several other institutional policies, too shaken by the intervention of Mr. Dugal:

Conflict of Interest: Personal use of social media

In our private activities in social media, we are aware of our professional association with CBC and we respect the institutional policies on the use of social media, as well as those relating to conflicts of interest. We honor our duty to professional reserve and we do nothing that could harm the reputation of the CBC.

The expression of personal opinions on controversial issues or political can undermine the credibility of CBC journalism and erode the trust of our audience .

The CBC policy overlaps with several others. We must therefore also take into account the following:

A. Policy 2.2.3: Conflict of interests and issues déontologie

B. Policy 2.2.21: Code of Conduct

C. Policy 2.5.1: Safety of information technology (IT) and Employee Use of IT Assets

D. Policy 2.9.2: Protection of Personal Information and Privacy

In short, it will be understood that the remarks that Mr. Dugal held in his exchange with Mr. Tilmant on Facebook Rousseau were inappropriate. Mr. Dugal, with whom I discussed for the purposes of this review, also readily acknowledges. He apologized through Mr. Luc Simard in the response of the latter to the complainant. I would add that the fact again when I talked to him and that his apology is now public that this revision is published on my website.

The complainant also criticized Mr. Dugal teaser that he had placed on his Facebook page to promote the upcoming interview of Mr. Therrien in the emission of 7 March 2015.

He wrote:

Théorieducomplotistes (and often misogynistic short while, call a spade a spade): start your engines . Tomorrow at The sphere , a topic that unfortunately no end to not end: the #gamergate for Dummies. It is not pretty pretty. Carl Therrien, assistant professor in the art history department and Film Studies from the University of Montreal (and specialist gaming world), we will attempt to make it digestible.

Mr. Tilmant Rousseau saw the expression of opinion since, his eyes Mr. Dugal assimilated all supporters or contributors gamergate to proponents of conspiracy theories and misogynist. That is, first, to ignore the ironic character in my opinion and promotional text. On the other hand, semantically, the phrase is sufficiently vague so that we do not necessarily have the same understanding as the complainant.

I will end this review by reminding managers of the relevant programs and information content important to regularly educate their staff to NPJ, they must respect in the exercise of their functions, as well as political institutional and Radio-Canada Code of Conduct that applies to all employees, including their privacy.

In particular, the rules concerning the use of social networks, because it is relatively new in the media world, should be recalled and discussed constantly to ensure that staff understand the meaning and scope.

It is not by chance that these norms and rules are so many and they are found both in the NPJ in institutional policies. Social media are powerful and complex tools that put content producers in instantaneous and constant contact with the public. In fact, with each member of the public. This is a major asset information, but it is also a danger that should not be minimized.

We should also remember that the younger generation of journalists, quite familiar to Facebook and other Twitter, are not always aware of the risks that there are to use them in their professional life in the same way that they use the in their private lives.

Social media has changed drastically reports that information producers have with the public by allowing an individual discussion with each listener. And I mean "exchange" within the meaning of talk, discussion, dialogue. It is therefore a personal relationship created between participants through social networks. And like all individual relationships, they create a proximity that can quickly confine familiarity and become antagonistic.

This kind of reports do not happen by itself for information producers. Many are lured by the content, tone, outspoken and even irreverent comments they receive, sometimes to discuss "vigorously" and make judgments about the views of their interlocutors.

In the field of social media, still relatively virgin and moving, journalists and the like must absolutely learn to keep their distance, only way to protect their impartiality and credibility.


An interview on the gamergate and guest commentator on the subject, Mr. Carl Therrien, have not violated the Journalistic Standards and Practices of CBC, March 7, 2015, as part of the show The sphere HERE Radio First -Canada.

However, the host of the show, Mr. Matthieu Dugal, did not respect the articles of NPJ and institutional policies that guide fairness, the expression of opinions and the use of social media.


  1. This documents a complaint from Laurence Tilmant-Rousseau reviewed by Pierre Tourangeau, Ombudsman on Thursday, May 7, 2015 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "original" defined multiple times with different content
  2. filed a complaint regarding this interview Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "complaint" defined multiple times with different content
  3. he asked me to review the complaint Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "reviewreq" defined multiple times with different content